Horizontal integration is a growth strategy that many companies use to boost their position within their industries and get an edge on their competition. They do this by taking over another company that operates at the same level of the value chain. This means both companies offer similar (if not the same) goods and services, and deal with a similar customer base. Another difference is that the multiple layers of management can hamper communication in a vertical organization.

Horizontal and vertical integration also have potential downsides that companies need to consider before embarking on either of them. Horizontal integration and vertical integration are growth strategies that companies use to consolidate their positions and set themselves apart from their competitors. While either strategy can help companies expand, there are important differences between the two.

## Horizontal – Definition with Examples

Horizontal lines can be found on stair treads, railway track planks, and other surfaces in real life. Notice how the line, as we move from left to right along the x-axis, is edging downward toward the bottom of the drawing; technically, the line is a “decreasing” line. Notice how the line, as we move from left to right along the x-axis, is edging upward toward the top of the drawing; technically, the line is an “increasing” line. Let’s consider again the two equations we did first on the previous page, and compare the lines’ equations with their slope values. Sampson Quain is an experienced content writer with a wide range of expertise in small business, digital marketing, SEO marketing, SEM marketing, and social media outreach.

- A horizontal line of symmetry runs across the image from left to right (or vice versa) and divides the image into identical halves.
- In geometry, we use the words vertical and horizontal for standing and sleeping respectively.
- It has no arrows pointing in either direction, unlike the symbol for a vertical line.

Alternatively, a spirit level that exploits the buoyancy of an air bubble and its tendency to go vertically upwards may be used to test for horizontality. A water level device may also be used to establish horizontality. The vertical line test is to check if a curve is a function. If at some point the function crosses a difference between horizontal and vertical line vertical line twice, it’s telling you that there are two $y$ values for that $x$ value, so the curve is not a function. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. Horizontal lines when extended also never intersect with one another.

## Definition of Horizontal Integration

Horizontal lines are commonly used in mathematics to represent functions and equations on coordinate planes. They can also be used to solve problems involving slope, distance, and other mathematical concepts. Additionally, horizontal lines can be used to draw shapes such as rectangles and triangles. Both horizontal and vertical lines are perpendicular to one another, and the intersection of these lines produces several regular shapes such as the square, rectangle, and rhombus.

We can’t divide by zero, which is of course why this slope value is “undefined”. But is there any number that is both positive and negative? The x is actually vertical and the y is actually horizontal. “Private tutoring and its impact on students’ academic achievement, formal schooling, and educational inequality in Korea.” Unpublished doctoral thesis. Varsity Tutors connects learners with a variety of experts and professionals. Not all of these elementary geometric facts are true in the 3-D context.

## What is the equation for a horizontal line?

In vertical mode, photographs are taller than they are wide. Our eyes see the surrounding horizontally giving a wider view instead of taller. The line at which the earth’s surface and the sky appear to meet is called the horizon. Anything parallel to the horizon is called horizontal. Physics Wallah strives to develop a comprehensive pedagogical structure for students, where they get a state-of-the-art learning experience with study material and resources.

In the given image AB is a horizontal line parallel to the x-axis and if you observe carefully the y-coordinate of both points A and B are the same. Another interesting this to note about the horizontal lines is that they are always perpendicular to the vertical lines. Horizontal lines are the building blocks of so many 2D and 3D shapes in elementary geometry. Squares, Triangles, Rectangles, Cubes, Trapezoids, Prism are just some basic examples of shapes where we can observe horizontal lines.

## What Is The Equation of a Vertical Line Passing Through a Point?

Another example of this is Alibaba, a Chinese e-commerce company, that owns the entire system of payment, delivery, search engine and much more. Ans – A horizontal line is drawn side to side in a coordinate plane, parallel to the x-axis and perpendicular to the y-axis. The vertical line that runs parallel to the y-axis and perpendicular to the x-axis is known as the up and down line. Horizontal integration also allows companies to cut down on their costs by sharing technology, marketing efforts, research and development (R&D), production, and distribution. So, ideally, the expanded department store chain would be more profitable than the two chains were when they operated separately.

The product may include complementary product, by-product or any other related product, competitive product or entering into the product’s repairs, services, and maintenance section. Ans – A vertical line is one that runs perpendicular to a flat ground surface. Vertical lines include flagpoles, lampposts, and vertical lines that connect the bases of a square or rectangle. The symbol for a horizontal line is a straight line that runs from left to right. It has no arrows pointing in either direction, unlike the symbol for a vertical line. Horizontal lines are used to create visual boundaries in a variety of design projects.

## What is Horizontal Line? Difference Between Horizontal and Vertical line

In order to measure length, volume, area, density, and distance, both vertical and horizontal lines are critical. In geometry, a horizontal line is any line that runs from left to right. A horizontal line has a slope of 0 and is parallel to the x-axis on a graph.

A plane which contains P and is normal to the designated direction is the horizontal plane at P. Any plane going through P, normal to the horizontal plane is a vertical plane at P. Through any point P, there is one and only one horizontal plane but a multiplicity of vertical planes. This is a new feature that emerges in three dimensions.

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Doing so would provide the purchaser with more revenue and allow it to reach a wider market. Just as “horizontal” is not at all the same as “vertical”, so also “zero slope” is not at all the same as “no slope”. This relationship will become very important when you start working with straight-line equations. This tool combines the power of mathematical computation engine that excels at solving mathematical formulas with the power of GPT large language models to parse and generate natural language.

## Identify the characteristics of horizontal lines.

A line is said to be horizontal when a straight line goes from left to right or right to left parallel to the horizon of the X-axis. In other words, in the coordinate plane, a line drawn parallel to the X-axis is called a horizontal line. The horizontal line never touches X-axis in the coordinate plane, and the vertical line is always perpendicular to the horizontal line. Apple is the best example of vertical integration; it is the biggest and a renowned manufacturer of smartphones, laptops and so on. It controls the whole production and distribution process itself, from the beginning to the end.

The definition of a function requires that every $x$ value has at most one $y$ value. It doesn’t require that every $y$ value has at most one $x$ value though, so the inverse of a function is not necessarily a function itself. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. Horizontal lines are lines that run from left to right and are parallel to the x-axis. Vertical lines are lines that run up and down and are parallel to the y-axis.

Graphs that pass both the vertical line and horizontal line tests are

one-to-one functions. These are exactly those

functions whose inverse relation is also a function. In the following article we are going to know about horizontal and vertical lines. An example of horizontal integration would be if two consulting firms merge. One of the firms offers software development services in the defense industry; the other firm also provides software development but in the oil and gas industry. Even though a horizontal integration may make sense from a business standpoint, however, there are potential downsides for consumers.

For that reason, this strategy can face a high level of scrutiny from government regulators, who may invoke antitrust laws to stop it from happening. Both horizontal and vertical integration have their pros and cons. We see horizontal lines all around us in shapes, objects, figures, and drawings.